Gymnospermae terdiri dari beberapa divisi baik yang sudah punah maupun yang masih ada sampai sekarang, yaitu mencakup 3 divisi yang. Gymnospermae memiliki ciri-ciri sebagai berikut: 1. Bakal biji tidak terlindungi oleh daun buah. 2. Pada umumnya perdu atau pohon, tidak ada. View soal from TM at SMA Rizvi Textile Institute. Soal- Soal Spermatophyta 1. Berikut ini adalah ciri-ciri dari tumbuhan Gymnospermae, .

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Its wood was like that of many conifers, consisting of tracheids and ghmnospermae rays, with closely spaced circular bordered pits on the radial walls of the tracheids.

The first cycads appeared in the Permian Period Some fossils suggest that the transport of the sperm through a pollen tube siphonogamy was in existence as far back as the Paleozoic.

Cycad leaves are compoundwith thick leathery leaflets borne in a pinnate featherlike arrangement on a main axis. While older classifications considered all seed plants to be assignable to a single division, Spermatophytamore-recent classifications recognize that the characteristic of naked seeds is not important enough to be used to tie all plants with that feature into one group.


The xylem conducts water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant and also provides structural support. The division Ginkgophyta consists of a single living species, Ginkgo biloba.

In cycads and Ginkgo the cotyledons remain within the seed and serve to digest the food in qdalah female gametophyte and absorb it into the developing embryo. Ginkgo has two kinds of branches: During the end of the Paleozoic asalah in the early Mesozoic, these axillary buds underwent further transformation.


The growth tissue of the stem and branches, known as the vascular cambium, contributes more xylem each growing seasonforming concentric growth rings in the wood. Scottish botanist Robert Brown first distinguished gymnosperms from angiosperms in The ovule-bearing portion was situated toward the upper surface away from the bract. There is evidence that these earliest cycads were deciduous. In most gymnosperms the male pollen cones, called microstrobilicontain reduced leaves called gymnspermae.

Modern families of conifers began to appear in the Mesozoic Era. They dominated the landscape about million…. Among the seeds were sterile structures, called interseminal scales, that held the seeds tightly together.

The ovuliferous scale of a conifer seed cone, then, may be gymnospermaw as an axis bearing bracts in the axils of which are modified woody ovuliferous scales derived from lateral buds. There was a problem with your submission. Pollen-bearing organs were variable among the pteridosperms; in many cases the microsporangia were elongated and fingerlike and were produced in clusters or were fused into compound organs.

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The large oval leaves of Gnetum look much like those of dicotyledonous angiosperms, while those of Ephedra are small and scalelike. A hardy deciduous treeGinkgo resembles an angiosperm in that the woody stem is frequently and irregularly branched and bears broad leaves, which are fan-shaped with dichotomously branched veins.


Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Typically, a sporophyte has a stem with roots and leaves and bears the reproductive structures.

At least some species are known to have been heterosporous. The gametophyte phase begins when the microspore, while still within the microsporangium, begins to germinate to form the male gametophyte. Cycads, Ginkgoand gnetophytes have two cotyledons in the embryo; pine and other conifers may have several eight is common; some have as many as At maturity, a gymnosperm embryo has two or more seed leaves, known as cotyledons.

By the late Paleozoic there came into existence another group of extinct conifers, the Voltziales division Pinophyta. The division Gnetophyta has three families across three orders: Pollen grains similar to those of Ephedra and Welwitschia are found as far back as the Permian Period.

Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Some of these presumed cycads differ from extant members in that megasporophylls were undivided, unlike those of Cycasconsidered to be primitive among cycads, in which the distal portion of the megasporophyll may be pinnately divided. Help us improve this article! Subtending the ovuliferous scale on the cone axis is a reduced scale leafor bract.