Ibn Miskawayh, Ahmad ibn Muhammad (c). Like so many of his contemporaries in the fourth and fifth centuries ah (tenth and eleventh centuries ad). Like so many of his contemporaries in the fourth and fifth centuries AH (tenth and eleventh centuries ad) Ibn Miskawayh was eclectic in philosophy, basing his. Ahmad Ibn Muhammad (Ibn) Miskawayh (ca//). A contemporary of Ibn Sina and al-Biruni, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Miskawayh was born in.

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This being so, education indicates a task, of an obligatory nature, which is undertaken by adults, particularly parents, for the young [21]. If Miskawayh did distance himself from natural life on this point, yet the rules of conduct which he presents and the exercise desirable for training young boys did not show concern for this boy’s existence in everyday life, and did not prepare him for customary practical human life, to the extent that it prepared him for a life closer to that of the military, harsh, tough, and ascetic.

Miskawayh remarks that these opinions are taken from Aristotle, but he very soon turns in another direction to present the boy’s soul and its faculties in a picture that agrees with what Plato had earlier said in the Republic. They become accustomed to keep themselves from the temptations of wicked pleasures; they restrain them from indulging in any of those pleasures or thinking too much about them. Kitab al-Kimya Miskaawyh al-Sab’een Picatrix.

This being so, it is easy to recognize evil character among young men and boys and to work to set them free from it, and habituate them to virtuous morals since it is possible for them to receive these swiftly [43]. Laila and Majnun at School: Miskawayh does not confine himself to this view of Aristotle, but deduces it also from the reliable laws that are the way God deals with His creation [23]. Our aim in this book is that we should acquire for our souls a character, whereby we shall give rise to deeds which are all fine and good, yet will be easy for us, with no trouble nor hardship.

For neglect of training will cause every human being to remain in the condition he was in during childhood. In this case perhaps al-Ghazali was one who copied directly from the text of Bryson, well known before his time and perhaps also during it, and did not borrow from Miskawayh; or perhaps he read the Greek original, and also read Miskawayh, and took from them both; for not much real difference exists between the translation and the composition.


The training of young men and boys 4.

Ibn Miskawayh, Ahmad ibn Muhammad (c–) – Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy

In this case, the boy must understand the basic aim of taking food, that it is a necessity and is desired for the health of the body, not as a means of sensory pleasure; hence he looks on it as medicinal for the body, to remedy the pains of hunger and guard against illness.

Thank You for Your Contribution! For the philosophers, or those who were influenced by the new philosophies, opposed the spirit of Islam and what was decreed by the Tradition hadith and sunna of the Prophet, in this point in particular, where they confined themselves to men in expressing their educational opinions, and kept women well outside their concerns in the sphere of teaching [67].

So the basic, and final, aim of training is an ethical aim, although it speaks of closeness to God by way of seeking to resemble Him in the hope of proximity to Him, and acquiring absolute happiness by this proximity. Furthermore, the boy must avoid attending any drinking sessions, so that he will not hear the follies which go the rounds at such times, unless they are attended by well-bred, virtuous people, from whose conversation and knowledge he can iibn.

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The Ethical Theory of Education of Ahmad Miskawayh

jbn Maybe it can be said also that although al-Ghazali was influenced by miskawahh, yet his expression of the final aim of training young boys remained closer miskkawayh the spirit of the Islamic religion than Miskawayh; that is because for al-Ghazali the actual content of education, or its material, was taken from the Qur’an and the Prophet’s sunna [65].

Click here for the original version in PDF format. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Miskawayh himself worked as a librarian for the libraries of a number of the viziers ministers of the Buwayhids during the Abbasid rule. These faculties appear gradually, as the boy grows, until he reaches his perfection and is then called rational. Then it is not hard for them to avoid evils, and later it is easy for them to follow all the prescriptions of wisdom and the regulations of the Law shari’a and Tradition sunna.

He goes so far as to suggest that Aristotle’s identification of the creator with an unmoved mover is a powerful argument in favour of a creator acceptable to Islam, since the very distinct nature of such a being prevents our normal categories of description from making sense.

As a Neoplatonisthis influence on Islamic philosophy is primarily in the area of ethics. His effect on Islamic philosophy is mainly concerned with ethical issues. This was one part of his thinking to realize his aim; consequently he made use of one of the books available and well known in his academic environment, and indicated it with exceptional confidence. Some of these seem abstract, seeking to influence the boy’s soul, and some are connected with his conduct and his external appearance.


Maybe one of the most important characteristics of Miskawayh also, emphasizing his great admiration for the Greek philosophy which had reached him, is that he did not aim for a reconciliation between religion and philosophy, as other previous Muslim philosophers had done. From this text, which is repeated in various forms in the Tahdhibwe can deduce more than one aim for refining and training in Miskawayh’s view. Among internal conditions, which influence the rational state of the human being and his moral direction towards good or bad, are conditions within his own body, in respect of his enjoyment of health and moderate temperament.

It is a stone which has in it branches like those of a tree. Different kinds of stones developed in course of time. Topkapi Saray Museum, Istanbul Inv. This can be attested by reference to the Qur’anic words, for instance: Contact our editors with your feedback. This is the date-palm. These describe the ways in which the various parts of the soul can be brought together into harmony, so achieving happiness. He considers that religion retains man in his state of childhood and boyhood, where the faculty of the intellect is weak, while philosophy and supreme happiness remain for the human being’s youth and manhood, where his intellect is mature and he knows how to use it towards the highest virtues and most perfect aims [18].

The date-palm is therefore considered the highest among the trees and resembles the lowest among animals. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.

This also places him nearer the thought of the new culture, regarding its elevation of intellectual activity and leaving work to the lower orders in society, to servants and slaves.

Ibn Miskawayh, Abu Ali Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Yaqub

Focusing on practical ethics, conduct, and refinement of character, it contains an original theory on the education of young boys. His most notable contributions, however, miakawayh in ethics and history. Select Translation Selections include: The Koran Interpreted, a translation by A.

Many Muslims excelled in the branches of learning known at that time.